Researchers from the National University of Singapore have discovered a new reproductive mode in frogs and toads -- breeding and laying direct developing eggs in live bamboo with narrow openings -- which was observed in the white spotted bush frog (<i>Raorchestes chalazodes</i>).

Clean smell doesn't always mean clean air

Some of the same chemical reactions that occur in the atmosphere as a result of smog and ozone are actually taking place in your house while you are cleaning. A...

First detailed picture of a cancer-related cell enzyme in action on a chromosome unit

New insight into the function of an enzyme related to the BRCA1 breast-cancer protein is published in the October 30, 2014 print edition of the journal Nature. The study by a Penn State University team led by Song Tan, professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at Penn State, produced the first detailed working image of an enzyme in a group that is associated with many types of cancer. The researchers obtained the first crystal structure of a gene-regulation enzyme working on a nucleosome. The image reveals previously unknown information about how the enzyme attaches to its nucleosome target. 
     This image is the first detailed picture of the crystal structure of a gene-regulation enzyme while it is working on a nucleosome -- a fundamental component of the chromosomes that provide structure and organization for an organism's genes. Nucleosomes are key targets of the enzymes that conduct genetic processes critical for life. This image reveals the crystal structure of the PRC1 enzyme (yellow, blue and red) bound to the nucleosome (DNA in light blue, histone proteins in purple, light green, light yellow and pink) This image was obtained in the lab of Song Tan at Penn State University and is published in the print edition of the journal <i>Nature</i> on Oct. 30, 2014.A landmark study to be published in the October 30, 2014 print edition of the journal Nature provides new insight into the function of an enzyme related to the BRCA1...

Why plants don't get sunburn

Plants rely on sunlight to make their food, but they also need protection from its harmful rays, just like humans do. Recently, scientists discovered a group of molecules in plants...

Supersonic laser-propelled rockets

The effectiveness of current laser-propulsion techniques is limited by the instability of supersonic gas flow, caused by shock waves that "choke" the inlet of the nozzle, reducing thrust. Those effects can be reduced with the help of laser ablation, redirecting the plasma plume so that it flows close to the interior walls of a supersonic nozzle and significantly improving the overall thrust.Scientists and science fiction writers alike have dreamt of aircrafts that are propelled by beams of light rather than conventional fuels. Now, a new method for improving the thrust generated...

Controlling Ebola in West Africa most effective way to decrease international risk: Paper

Controlling the Ebola virus outbreak at the source in West Africa is the most effective way to decrease international risk of transmission, according to a research paper published today in <i>The Lancet</i> by Dr. Kamran Khan, a physician and researcher at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto.Controlling the Ebola virus outbreak at the source in West Africa is the most effective way to decrease international risk of transmission, according to a research paper published in The...

Tiny carbon nanotube pores make big impact

A team led by the Lawrence Livermore scientists has created a new kind of ion channel consisting of short carbon nanotubes, which can be inserted into synthetic bilayers and live...

A mechanism that allows a differentiated cell to reactivate as a stem cell revealed

Jordi Casanova is the co-leader scientists of the study published in <i>Cell Reports</i>/One kind of stem cell, those referred to as 'facultative', form part -- together with other cells -- of tissues and organs. There is apparently nothing that differentiates these cells...

Where did all the oil go?

This image shows hydrocarbon contamination from Deepwater Horizon overlaid on sea floor bathymetry, highlighting the 1,250 square mile area identified in the study.Due to the environmental disaster's unprecedented scope, assessing the damage caused by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico has been a challenge. One unsolved puzzle is...

Calming the plasma edge: The tail that wags the dog

This is a comparison of visible light from a reference no-Li discharge and one with Li injection in DIII-D. Li-II visible emission is primarily green in this image from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.Experiments on the DIII-D tokamak that General Atomics operates for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have demonstrated the ability of lithium injections to transiently double the temperature and pressure...

Gentle caffeine boost for premature babies

In an Empa laboratory the membranes are functionalized with spiropyran, thereby making them "switchable."Empa researchers have developed a UV-activated membrane which releases a gentle dose of medication to the skin of a patient. In future those who fear injections will be able to...

Scientists generate first human stomach tissue in lab with stem cells

Scientists used pluripotent stem cells to generate functional, three-dimensional human stomach tissue in a laboratory -- creating an unprecedented tool for researching the development and diseases of an organ central to several public health crises, ranging from cancer to diabetes.

Plump turtles swim better: First models of swimming animals

Scientists studied newborn leatherback sea turtles to create the first models of a swimming animal. Challenges to measuring forces like drag and thrust made this difficult before, but the research team overcame these, offering the opportunity for many more to benefit from their findings.Bigger is better, if you're a leatherback sea turtle.

Scripps Research Institute scientists make enzyme that could help explain origins of life

Gerald F. Joyce, M.D., Ph.D., is a professor in the Departments of Chemistry and Cell and Molecular Biology at The Scripps Research Institute and director of the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation.Mimicking natural evolution in a test tube, scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have devised an enzyme with a unique property that might have been crucial to the origin...

Microrockets fueled by water neutralize chemical and biological warfare agents

With fears growing over chemical and biological weapons falling into the wrong hands, scientists are developing microrockets to fight back against these dangerous agents, should the need arise. In the...

Nestling birds struggle in noisy environments

Unable to fly, nestling birds depend on their parents for both food and protection: vocal communication between parents and offspring helps young birds to determine when they should beg for...

Teeth, sex and testosterone reveal secrets of aging in wild mouse lemurs

Mouse lemurs can live at least eight years in the wild -- twice as long as some previous estimates, a long-term longitudinal study finds.

NIST 'combs' the atmosphere to measure greenhouse gases

Photo illustration of NIST experiment using a pair of laser frequency combs (depicted as rainbow-colored cartoons) to detect the simultaneous signatures of several 'greenhouse' gases along a 2-kilometer path between a NIST laboratory roof and a nearby mesa. Each comb 'tooth' represents a different frequency of light. To identify gases in the atmosphere, researchers measured the amount of comb light absorbed at different frequencies along the path.By remotely "combing" the atmosphere with a custom laser-based instrument, researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in collaboration with researchers from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

Cinema-like environment helps audiences immerse in movies even on small screens & displays

This is a view of the 24-inch computer screen in the miniature movie theater.If the surroundings are designed to be sufficiently stimulating, even a simple computer screen is enough to generate an intense cinematic experience. After observing some 300 study subjects, researchers at...

Scientists rank thousands of substances according to potential exposure level

An overwhelming number of chemicals from household and industrial products are in the environment -- and hundreds are in our bodies. But for most of them, scientists have yet to...

BGI Tech and Hebei Agricultural University complete the genome sequencing of the jujube tree

BGI Tech and Hebei Agricultural University jointly announced the complete, high quality sequencing of the Jujube genome. Jujube is the most economically important member of the Rhamnaceae family, and the...

Planck 2013 results

Astronomy & Astrophysics is publishing a special feature of 31 articles describing the data gathered by Planck over 15 months of observations and released by ESA and the Planck Collaboration...

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