Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers have identified the brain circuit that regulates thirst.

Gigantic ring system around J1407b much larger, heavier than Saturn's

Artist's conception of the extrasolar ring system circling the young giant planet or brown dwarf J1407b is shown. The rings are shown eclipsing the young sun-like star J1407, as they would have appeared in early 2007. The best fit model is consistent with a system of at least 30 rings, and there are gaps where satellites ("exomoons") may have already formed.Astronomers at the Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands, and the University of Rochester, USA, have discovered that the ring system that they see eclipse the very young Sun-like star J1407 is...

Engineering self-assembling amyloid fibers

Amyloid fibers self-assemble from smaller proteins. UC Davis researchers have engineered other proteins so they spontaneously form amyloid. These new proteins could be useful in nanotechnology. Here, the cap structure (red) was removed from spruce budworm antifreeze protein and other structures adjusted so that molecules could link up as fibrils (bottom).Nature has many examples of self-assembly, and bioengineers are interested in copying or manipulating these systems to create useful new materials or devices. Amyloid proteins, for example, can self-assemble into...

UCI, fellow chemists find a way to unboil eggs

UC Irvine and Australian chemists have figured out how to unboil egg whites -- an innovation that could dramatically reduce costs for cancer treatments, food production and other segments of...

Scientists identify new mechanism to aid cells under stress

A team of biologists from NYU and Harvard has identified new details in a cellular mechanism that serves as a defense against stress. The findings potentially offer insights into tumor...

Why all-nighters don't work: How sleep and memory go hand-in-hand

Want to ace that test tomorrow? Here's a tip: Put down the coffee and hit the sack.

Calculating the future of solar-fuel refineries

A team of University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers has developed a new tool to help plot the future of solar fuels.

Pictured together for the first time: A chemokine and its receptor

The newly solved structure of the CXCR4 receptor (black) in complex with a chemokine (purple surface). The background shows cell migration, a process driven by chemokines interacting with receptors on cell surfaces.Researchers at University of California, San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Bridge Institute at the University of Southern California report the first crystal structure of...

Pro-marijuana 'tweets' are sky-high on Twitter

Patricia A. Cavazos-Rehg, Ph.D., and her Washington University research team found there were 15 times as many pro-pot tweets as anti-pot tweets during one month they tracked Twitter. Most sending and receiving these tweets were teens and young adults, a group at elevated risk for marijuana dependence and drug-related problems.Analyzing every marijuana-related Twitter message sent during a one-month period in early 2014, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that the "Twitterverse" is a...

Study shows Brazil's Soy Moratorium still needed to preserve Amazon

Soybeans grow near a forested area in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. Under the Soy Moratorium, major trading companies do not purchase soybeans produced in the Brazilian Amazon on recently deforested areas.Today, fewer chicken nuggets can trace their roots to cleared Amazon rain forest.

H.E.S.S. finds three extremely luminous gamma-ray sources

Wits scientists are part of a multinational team of astronomers working on the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) telescopes that have again demonstrated its excellent capabilities in searching for high-energy...

Largest-ever autism genome study finds most siblings have different autism-risk genes

The largest-ever autism genome study, funded by Autism Speaks, reveals that the disorder's genetic underpinnings are even more complex than previously thought: Most siblings who have autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have different autism-linked genes.

Study finds rabies booster defends pets with out-of-date vaccination against the disease

A new study by Kansas State University veterinary diagnosticians finds that pets with out-of-date rabies vaccinations are very unlikely to develop the fatal disease if given a rabies booster immediately...

Many women with breast cancer have poor knowledge about their condition

A new analysis has found that many women with breast cancer lack knowledge about their illness, with minority patients less likely than white patients to know and report accurate information...

UGA researchers image and measure tubulin transport in cilia

Julie Craft is a sixth-year doctoral student at the University of Georgia and is studying the mechanism behind tubulin transport and its assembly into cilia.Defective cilia can lead to a host of diseases and conditions in the human body--from rare, inherited bone malformations to blindness, male infertility, kidney disease and obesity. Scientists knew that...

Entanglement on a chip: Breakthrough promises secure communications and faster computers

Drawing of the silicon ring resonator with its access waveguide. The green wave at the input represents the laser pump, the red and blue wavepackets at the output represent the generated photon pairs, and the infinity symbol linking the two outputs indicates the entanglement between the pair of photons.Unlike Bilbo's magic ring, which entangles human hearts, engineers have created a new micro-ring that entangles individual particles of light, an important first step in a whole host of new...

Early human ancestors used their hands like modern humans

New research suggests pre-Homo human ancestral species, such as Australopithecus africanus, used human-like hand postures much earlier than was previously thought.

Climate affects the development of human speech

This map shows the distribution of languages with complex tone (red dots) and without complex tone (blue dots) in the Phonotactics Database of the Australian National University. Darker shading on map corresponds
to lower mean specific humidity.An interesting question, one that linguists have long debated, is whether climate and geography affect language. The challenge has been to untangle the factors that cause sounds to change.

Clemson researcher explores how the universe creates reason, morality

Recent developments in science are beginning to suggest that the universe naturally produces complexity. The emergence of life in general and perhaps even rational life, with its associated technological culture,...

New technique helps probe performance of organic solar cell materials

A research team led by North Carolina State University has developed a new technique for determining the role that a material's structure has on the efficiency of organic solar cells,...

Small drop in sea level had big impact on southern Great Barrier Reef

University of Sydney researchers have analysed samples from One Tree Reef in the southern Great Barrier Reef and discovered a dramatic slow down following a small fall in sea level.The idea that coral reefs have formed over millennia in a continuous process has been challenged by a study of the southern Great Barrier Reef. The research, led by the...

New research re-creates planet formation, super-earths and giant planets in the laboratory

New laser-driven shock compression experiments on stishovite provide thermodynamic  and electrical conductivity data at unprecedented conditions and reveal the unusual properties of rocks deep inside large exoplanets and giant planets.New laser-driven compression experiments reproduce the conditions deep inside exotic super-Earths and giant planet cores, and the conditions during the violent birth of Earth-like planets, documenting the material properties that...

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