International team sequences rainbow trout genome

Using fish bred at Washington State University, an international team of researchers has mapped the genetic profile of the rainbow trout, a versatile salmonid whose relatively recent genetic history opens a window into how vertebrates evolve.

High-performance, low-cost ultracapacitors built with graphene and carbon nanotubes

A scanning electron microscope image shows the ultracapacitor's composite film containing graphene flakes and single-walled carbon nanotubes.By combining the powers of two single-atom-thick carbon structures, researchers at the George Washington University's Micro-propulsion and Nanotechnology Laboratory have created a new ultracapacitor that is both high performance and...

What gave us the advantage over extinct types of humans?

This image shows Hebrew University researchers (from left to right): Prof. Eran Meshorer, Dr. Liran Carmel  and David Gokhman, plus an unidentified ancient "friend."In parallel with modern man (Homo sapiens), there were other, extinct types of humans with whom we lived side by side, such as Neanderthals and the recently discovered Denisovans of...

RNA shows potential as boiling-resistant anionic polymer material for nanoarchitectures

The creation of boiling-temperature-resistant RNA nanoparticles opens a new dimension of RNA as a special polymer, feasible in industrial and nanotechnological applications.A team of nanotechnology researchers at the University of Kentucky has discovered new methods to build heat resistant nanostructures and arrays using RNA.

How often are unauthorized immigrant workers trafficked and abused?

Labor trafficking -- or recruiting a person for labor through force, fraud, or coercion for involuntary servitude, debt bondage, or even slavery -- has been a difficult problem to track...

'Upside-down planet' reveals new method for studying binary star systems

What looked at first like a sort of upside-down planet has instead revealed a new method for studying binary star systems, discovered by a University of Washington student astronomer.

Ecology team improves understanding of valley-wide stream chemistry

Researcher Kevin McGuire takes a water sample from a forest stream.A geostatistical approach for studying environmental conditions in stream networks and landscapes has been successfully applied at a valley-wide scale to assess headwater stream chemistry at high resolution, revealing unexpected...

Earth Week: Bark beetles change Rocky Mountain stream flows, affect water quality

Gray trees killed by bark beetles pepper the landscape in Rocky Mountain National Park.On Earth Week--and in fact, every week now--trees in mountains across the western United States are dying, thanks to an infestation of bark beetles that reproduce in the trees' inner...

More questions than answers as mystery of domestication deepens

Washington University biologist Ken Olsen, who studies the genetic basis of evolution in plants, and archeologist Fiona Marshall, whose research focuses on animal domestication in Africa, enjoy an interdisciplinary chat. Both contributed to a special issue of PNAS on the modern understanding of domestication.We all think we have a rough idea of what happened 12,000 years ago when people at several different spots around the globe brought plants under cultivation and domesticated animals...

UCSF study finds codeine often prescribed to children, despite available alternatives

Despite its potentially harmful effects in children, codeine continues to be prescribed in U.S. emergency rooms, according to new research from UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital San Francisco.

Bulletproof nuclei? Stem cells exhibit unusual absorption property

Stem cells -- the body's master cells -- demonstrate a bizarre property never before seen at a cellular level, according to a study published today from scientists at the University...

Vacuum ultraviolet lamp of the future created in Japan

A team of researchers in Japan has developed a solid-state lamp that emits high-energy ultraviolet (UV) light at the shortest wavelengths ever recorded for such a device, from 140 to 220 nanometers. This is within the range of vacuum-UV light...

Scientists successfully use krypton to accurately date ancient Antarctic ice

This is the sampling trench for dust studies on Taylor Glacier. Windblown dust from local sources contaminates the upper ice layers and uncontaminated samples are obtained from a meter below the glacier's surface.A team of scientists has successfully identified the age of 120,000-year-old Antarctic ice using radiometric krypton dating -- a new technique that may allow them to locate and date ice...

UV-radiation data to help ecological research

This image shows the average intensity of global UV-B radiation -- mean UV-B of highest month.Many research projects study the effects of temperature and precipitation on the global distribution of plant and animal species. However, an important component of climate research, the UV-B radiation, is...

Like a hall of mirrors, nanostructures trap photons inside ultrathin solar cells

In the quest to make sun power more competitive, researchers are designing ultrathin solar cells that cut material costs. At the same time they're keeping these thin cells efficient by...

Online retailers have clear advantage by not collecting sales tax

Two independent studies use two very different approaches to reach the same conclusion: some online retailers really do have an advantage over traditional brick-and-mortar stores.

Mysteries of a nearby planetary system's dynamics now are solved

Mysteries of one of the most fascinating nearby planetary systems have been solved, report authors of a scientific paper to be published by the journal <i>Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society</i> in its early online edition on 22 April 2014. The study presents the first viable model for the planetary system orbiting one the first stars discovered to have planets. This illustration shows the orbital distances and relative sizes of the four innermost planets known to orbit the star 55 Cancri A (bottom) in comparison with planets in own inner Solar System (top).  Both Jupiter and the Jupiter-mass planet 55 Cancri "d" are outside this picture, orbiting their host star with a distance of nearly 5 astronomical units (AU), where one AU is equal to the average distance between the Earth and the Sun.Mysteries of one of the most fascinating nearby planetary systems now have been solved, report authors of a scientific paper to be published by the journal Monthly Notices of the...

Why alcoholism saps muscle strength

Muscle weakness is a common symptom of both long-time alcoholics and patients with mitochondrial disease. Now researchers have found a common link: mitochondria that are unable to self-repair. The results...

Study casts doubt on climate benefit of biofuels from corn residue

This is Adam Liska.Using corn crop residue to make ethanol and other biofuels reduces soil carbon and can generate more greenhouse gases than gasoline, according to a study published today in the journal...

Progress made in developing nanoscale electronics

A single layer of organic molecules connects the positive and negative electrodes in a molecular-junction OLED.Scientists are facing a number of barriers as they try to develop circuits that are microscopic in size, including how to reliably control the current that flows through a circuit...

Airport security officers at TSA gaining insight from Sandia human behavior studies

Though seen here looking at data on a computer, Sandia National Laboratories' Ann Speed spends much of her time studying humans. A cognitive psychologist by training, Speed's work is aimed at quantifying human behaviors, an expertise highly valued -- and funded -- by the Department of Homeland Security's Transportation Security Administration.A recent Sandia National Laboratories study offers insight into how a federal transportation security officer's thought process can influence decisions made during airport baggage screening, findings that are helping the...

Computational method dramatically speeds up estimates of gene expression

With gene expression analysis growing in importance for both basic researchers and medical practitioners, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Maryland have developed a new computational method...

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