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International team sequences rainbow trout genome

Using fish bred at Washington State University, an international team of researchers has mapped the genetic profile of the rainbow trout, a versatile salmonid whose relatively recent genetic history opens a window into how vertebrates evolve.

Why alcoholism saps muscle strength

Muscle weakness is a common symptom of both long-time alcoholics and patients with mitochondrial disease. Now researchers have found a common link: mitochondria that are unable to self-repair. The results...

Computational method dramatically speeds up estimates of gene expression

With gene expression analysis growing in importance for both basic researchers and medical practitioners, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Maryland have developed a new computational method...

Deadly human pathogen Cryptococcus fully sequenced

Scanning electron micrograph shows infectious spores produced by the deadly fungi <i>Cryptococcus neoformans</i>.Within each strand of DNA lies the blueprint for building an organism, along with the keys to its evolution and survival. These genetic instructions can give valuable insight into why...

Connecting sleep deficits among young fruit flies to disruption in mating later in life

Mom always said you need your sleep, and it turns out, she was right. According to a new study published in Science this week from researchers at the Perelman School...

In sex-reversed cave insects, females have the penises

This shows the female penis of <I>N. aurora</I>.Researchers reporting in the Cell Press journal Current Biology on April 17 have discovered little-known cave insects with rather novel sex lives. The Brazilian insects, which represent four distinct but...

For resetting circadian rhythms, neural cooperation is key

Fruit flies are pretty predictable when it comes to scheduling their days, with peaks of activity at dawn and dusk and rest times in between. Now, researchers reporting in the...

Stanford biologists help solve fungal mysteries

Pine forests are chock full of wild animals and plant life, but there's an invisible machine underground. Huge populations of fungi are churning away in the soil, decomposing organic matter...

Declining catch rates in Caribbean green turtle fishery may be result of overfishing

A green turtle is being unloaded by fishers in R&#237;o Grande Bar community. A 20-year assessment of Nicaragua's legal, artisanal green sea turtle fishery by the Wildlife Conservation Society and the University of Florida has uncovered a stark reality: greatly reduced overall catch rates of turtles in what may have become an unsustainable take.A 20-year assessment of Nicaragua's legal, artisanal green sea turtle fishery has uncovered a stark reality: greatly reduced overall catch rates of turtles in what may have become an unsustainable...

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For cells, internal stress leads to unique shapes

Caltech researchers studied the supportive microtubule arrangement in the tissue of pavement cells from the first leaves -- or cotyledons -- of a young <I>Arabidopsis thaliana</I> plant (pictured). By fluorescently marking the cells' microtubules (yellow, top surface of cell; purple, bottom surface of cell), the researchers could image the cell's structural arrangement -- and watch how this arrangement changed over time. They could also watch the microtubule modifications that occurred due to changes in the mechanical forces experienced by the cells. The unusual shape of the pavement cell represents a state of balance -- an individual cell's tug-of-war to maintain structural integrity while also dynamically responding to the pushes and pulls of mechanical stress.From far away, the top of a leaf looks like one seamless surface; however, up close, that smooth exterior is actually made up of a patchwork of cells in a...

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Researchers describe 4 new species of 'killer sponges' from the deep sea

A large group of <i>Asbestopluma monticola</i> sponges grow on top of a dead sponge on Davidson Seamount, off the Central California coast.Killer sponges sound like creatures from a B-grade horror movie. In fact, they thrive in the lightless depths of the deep sea. Scientists first discovered that some sponges are carnivorous...

This image shows Hebrew University researchers (from left to right): Prof. Eran Meshorer, Dr. Liran Carmel  and David Gokhman, plus an unidentified ancient "friend."

More questions than answers as mystery of domestication deepens

Washington University biologist Ken Olsen, who studies the genetic basis of evolution in plants, and archeologist Fiona Marshall, whose research focuses on animal domestication in Africa, enjoy an interdisciplinary chat. Both contributed to a special issue of PNAS on the modern understanding of domestication.We all think we have a rough idea of what happened 12,000 years ago when people at several different spots around the globe brought plants under cultivation and domesticated animals...

Plants with dormant seeds give rise to more species

Seeds that sprout as soon as they're planted may be good news for a garden. But wild plants need to be more careful. In the wild, a plant whose seeds...

Surprise: Lost stem cells naturally replaced by non-stem cells, fly research suggests

Johns Hopkins researchers have discovered an unexpected phenomenon in the organs that produce sperm in fruit flies: When a certain kind of stem cell is killed off experimentally, another group...

Scientists re-define what's healthy in newest analysis for Human Microbiome Project

As scientists catalog the trillions of bacteria found in every nook and cranny of the human body, a new look by the University of Michigan shows wide variation in the...

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Call for alternative identification methods for endangered species

This is the harlequin frog from Costa Rica.In a time of global climate change and rapidly disappearing habitat critical to the survival of countless endangered species, there is a heightened sense of urgency to confirm the return...

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East African honeybees are safe from invasive pests… for now

This is the African honey bee, <i>Apis mellifera scutellata</i>, on an ornamental succulent in Kitui, Kenya.Several parasites and pathogens that devastate honeybees in Europe, Asia and the United States are spreading across East Africa, but do not appear to be impacting native honeybee populations at...

Chimpanzees prefer firm, stable beds

"Charles" (an adult male chimp) is sitting in a <i>C. alexandri</i> tree.Chimpanzees may select a certain type of wood, Ugandan Ironwood, over other options for its firm, stable, and resilient properties to make their bed, according to a study published April...

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Sperm meets egg: Protein essential for fertilization discovered

PN7h means fertilized eggs.Researchers at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute have discovered interacting proteins on the surface of the sperm and the egg essential to begin mammalian life. These proteins, which allow the...

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EU must take urgent action on invasive species

The EU must take urgent action to halt the spread of invasive species that are threatening native plants and animals across Europe, according to a scientist from Queen's University Belfast.

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Diverse gene pool critical for tigers' survival, say Stanford scholars

New research by Stanford scholars shows that increasing genetic diversity among the 3,000 or so tigers left on the planet is the key to their survival as a species.

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