In this artist's concept, the moon Ganymede orbits the giant planet Jupiter. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope observed aurorae on the moon generated by Ganymede's magnetic fields. A saline ocean under the moon's icy crust best explains shifting in the auroral belts measured by Hubble.

Menopausal whales are influential and informative leaders

Two killer whales are spyhopping.Menopause is a downright bizarre trait among animals. It's also rare. Outside of the human species, only the female members of two whale species outlive their reproductive lives in such...

The chameleon reorganizes its nanocrystals to change colors

These are male panther chameleons (<i>Furcifer pardalis</i>) photographed in Madagascar.Many chameleons have the remarkable ability to exhibit complex and rapid color changes during social interactions. A collaboration of scientists within the Sections of Biology and Physics of...

Antarctic ice shelves rapidly thinning

A new study led by Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego researchers has revealed that the thickness of Antarctica's floating ice shelves has recently decreased by as much...

NASA spacecraft in Earth's orbit, preparing to study magnetic reconnection

This is an artist's concept of the MMS observatory fleet with rainbow magnetic lines.Following a successful launch at 10:44 p.m. EDT Thursday, NASA's four Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft are positioned in Earth's orbit to begin the first space mission dedicated to the study...

New lobster-like predator found in 508 million-year-old fossil-rich site

This is a holotype of <i>Yawunik kootenayi</i>.What do butterflies, spiders and lobsters have in common? They are all surviving relatives of a newly identified species called Yawunik kootenayi, a marine creature with two pairs of eyes...

Crocodile ancestor was top predator before dinosaurs roamed North America

This is a life reconstruction of <i>Carnufex carolinensis</i>.A newly discovered crocodilian ancestor may have filled one of North America's top predator roles before dinosaurs arrived on the continent. Carnufex carolinensis, or the "Carolina Butcher," was a 9-foot...

People use handshakes to sniff each other out

Scientists find that people use the touch of a handshake to sample and sniff signaling molecules. A sterile glove was used to identify signaling molecules transmitted via a handshake.Limp or firm, your handshake conveys subliminal social cues. Now, research reveals it also transmits chemical signals that could explain why the greeting evolved in the first place.

Political liberals display greater happiness, UCI study finds

What does it mean to be happy? Is it how happy you say you are, or is it how happy you act? Previous research has found that political conservatives report...

Quantum correlation can imply causation

Contrary to the statistician's slogan, in the quantum world, certain kinds of correlations do imply causation.

Low vaccination rates fuel the 2015 measles outbreak

Inadequate vaccine coverage is likely a driving force behind the ongoing Disneyland measles outbreak, according to calculations by a research team at Boston Children's Hospital. Their report, based on epidemiological...

Wandering Jupiter accounts for our unusual solar system

Jupiter may have swept through the early solar system like a wrecking ball, destroying a first generation of inner planets before retreating into its current orbit, according to a new study published March 23 in Proceedings of the National Academy...

NASA's Hubble discovers four images of same supernova split by cosmic lens

The image shows the galaxy's location within a hefty cluster of galaxies called MACS J1149.6+2223. Arrows (inset) point to the multiple copies of Supernova Refsdal. The four images were spotted on Nov. 11, 2014.Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have spotted for the first time a distant supernova split into four images. The multiple images of the exploding star are caused by the...

Dark matter even darker than once thought

<p>This collage shows NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope images of six different galaxy clusters. The clusters were observed in a study of how dark matter in clusters of galaxies behaves when the clusters collide. 72 large cluster collisions were studied in total.

<p>The clusters shown here are, from left to right and top to bottom: MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0152.5-2852, MACS J0717.5+3745, Abell 370, Abell 2744 and ZwCl 1358+62.Astronomers using observations from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have studied how dark matter in clusters of galaxies behaves when the clusters collide. The results,...

Phthalates potentially alter levels of a pregnancy hormone that influences sex development

<p>This is an image of a healthy baby. <p>Exposure to hormone-altering chemicals called phthalates -- which are found in many plastics, foods  and personal care products -- early in pregnancy is associated with a disruption in an essential pregnancy hormone and adversely affects the masculinization of male genitals in the baby, according to research led by the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health.Exposure to hormone-altering chemicals called phthalates -- which are found in many plastics, foods and personal care products -- early in pregnancy is associated with a disruption in an essential...

Molecule-making machine simplifies complex chemistry

This is the Martin Burke chemistry group. Right to left:Junqi Li, Steven Ballmer,  Jonathan Lehmann, Michael Schmidt, Andrea Palazzolo. Marty Burke,  professor of chemistry, bottom center.A new molecule-making machine could do for chemistry what 3-D printing did for engineering: Make it fast, flexible and accessible to anyone.

Colliding stars explain enigmatic 17th century explosion

This chart of the position of a nova (marked in red) that appeared in the year 1670 was recorded by the famous astronomer Hevelius and was published by the Royal Society in England in their journal <i>Philosophical Transactions</i>.New observations made with APEX and other telescopes reveal that the star that European astronomers saw appear in the sky in 1670 was not a nova, but a much rarer,...

Epoch-defining study pinpoints when humans came to dominate planet Earth

The human-dominated geological epoch known as the Anthropocene probably began around the year 1610, with an unusual drop in atmospheric carbon dioxide and the irreversible exchange of species between the...

Graphene 'gateway' discovery opens possibilities for improved energy technologies

Computer simulations show a single proton (pink) can cross graphene by passing through the world's thinnest proton channel.Graphene, a strong, lightweight carbon honeycombed structure that's only one atom thick, holds great promise for energy research and development. Recently scientists with the Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures, and Transport...

Bariatric surgery before joint replacement can improve outcomes in obese patients

This is Emily Dodwell, MD.Obesity is not only a risk factor for developing knee and hip arthritis. It is also linked to less favorable outcomes after joint replacement surgery. Two new studies at Hospital...

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Landmark study proves that magnets can control heat and sound

Researchers at The Ohio State University have discovered how to control heat with a magnetic field.

Losing weight substantially reduces atrial fibrillation

Obese patients with atrial fibrillation who lost at least 10 percent of their body weight were six times more likely to achieve long-term freedom from this common heart rhythm disorder...

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