The world's largest parrotfish, the bumphead (<i>Bolbometopon muricatum</i>) is often more than 4 feet long and can weigh in at more than 100 pounds.

Brainwaves can predict audience reaction

Brainwaves can predict audience reaction.Media and marketing experts have long sought a reliable method of forecasting responses from the general population to future products and messages. According to a study conducted at the City...

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NASA-funded X-ray instrument settles interstellar debate

Colors indicate the density of interstellar helium near Earth and its enhancement in a downstream cone as the neutral atoms respond to the sun's gravity (blue is low density, red is high). Also shown are the observing angles for DXL and ROSAT.New findings from a NASA-funded instrument have resolved a decades-old puzzle about a fog of low-energy X-rays observed over the entire sky. Thanks to refurbished detectors first flown on a...

Mysterious molecules in space

This graph shows absorption wavelength as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the silicon-terminated carbon chains SiC_(2n+1)H, for the extremely strong pi-pi electronic transitions. When the chain contains 13 or more carbon atoms - not significantly longer than carbon chains already known to exist in space - these strong transitions overlap with the spectral region occupied by the elusive diffuse interstellar bands.Over the vast, empty reaches of interstellar space, countless small molecules tumble quietly though the cold vacuum. Forged in the fusion furnaces of ancient stars and ejected into space when...

Tough foam from tiny sheets

An electron microscope image of foam created at Rice University shows layers of graphene oxide stacked to form a three-dimensional structure with the help of hexagonal boron nitride linkers.Tough, ultralight foam of atom-thick sheets can be made to any size and shape through a chemical process invented at Rice University.

From 'Finding Nemo' to minerals -- what riches lie in the deep sea?

Left: The first species ever recovered from the deep sea. Center: Rockfish use deep-sea carbonate formations at Hydrate Ridge, US, as a refuge. Right: Deep-sea corals such as the one pictured are a source of jewelery and other riches.As fishing and the harvesting of metals, gas and oil have expanded deeper and deeper into the ocean, scientists are drawing attention to the services provided by the deep sea,...

Microscopic rowing -- without a cox

The background is the instantaneous fluid velocity field of one flagellum, color-coded by magnitude, with overlaid arrows showing flow direction.Many different types of cell, including sperm, bacteria and algae, propel themselves using whip-like appendages known as flagella. These protrusions, about one-hundredth of a millimetre long, function like tiny oars,...

Mineral magic? Common mineral capable of making and breaking bonds

A team of ASU researchers has demonstrated that a particular mineral, sphalerite, can affect the most fundamental process in organic chemistry: carbon-hydrogen bond breaking and making. This is a sample of gem-quality sphalerite in a quartz matrix.Reactions among minerals and organic compounds in hydrothermal environments are critical components of Earth's deep carbon cycle, they provide energy for the deep biosphere, and may have implications for the...

Researchers discover cool-burning flames in space, could lead to better engines on earth

These are screen shots taken during one of the FLEX experiments.A team of international researchers has discovered a new type of cool burning flames that could lead to cleaner, more efficient engines for cars. The discovery was made during a...

New pill regimens published in The Lancet cure hardest-to-treat hepatitis C patients

Eric Lawitz, M.D., led a national study that identified a pill-only treatment for hepatitis C. The new treatment cures 9 of 10 hepatitis C patients with minimal side effects. The study was published July 28 in <i>The Lancet</i>. Dr. Lawitz is a professor of medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and vice president of scientific and research development at the Texas Liver Institute.Researchers from The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, the Texas Liver Institute and other institutions have identified a combination of pills that cures 9 of 10...

Refrigerator magnets

The magnets cluttering the face of your refrigerator may one day be used as cooling agents, according to a new theory formulated by MIT researchers.

Vision-correcting display makes reading glasses so yesterday

The blurred image on the left shows how a person with hyperopia, or farsightedness, would see a computer screen without corrective lenses. The image on the right shows how that same person would perceive the picture using a prototype display that compensates for visual impairments. Images were taken by a DSLR camera set to simulate hyperopic vision.What if computer screens had glasses instead of the people staring at the monitors? That concept is not too far afield from technology being developed by UC Berkeley computer and...

Brainwaves can predict audience reaction for television programming

Media and marketing experts have long sought a reliable method of forecasting responses from the general population to future products and messages. According to a study conducted at the City...

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Revolutionary microshutter technology hurdles significant challenges

Goddard engineers Lance Oh is one of several technologists developing a next-generation microshutter array technology originally developed for the James Webb Space Telescope.NASA technologists have hurdled a number of significant technological challenges in their quest to improve an already revolutionary observing technology originally created for the James Webb Space Telescope.

Huge waves measured for first time in Arctic Ocean

As the climate warms and sea ice retreats, the North is changing. An ice-covered expanse now has a season of increasingly open water which is predicted to extend across the...

Optimum inertial self-propulsion design for snowman-like nanorobot

Scale plays a major role in locomotion. Swimming microorganisms, such as bacteria and spermatozoa, are subjected to relatively small inertial forces compared to the viscous forces exerted by the surrounding...

Evolution in rainforest flies points to climate change survival

Scientists believe some tropical species may be able to evolve and adapt to the effects of climate change.

Memory relies on astrocytes, the brain's lesser known cells

This image depicts Terrence Sejnowski.When you're expecting something -- like the meal you've ordered at a restaurant -- or when something captures your interest, unique electrical rhythms sweep through your brain.

Learning the smell of fear: Mothers teach babies their own fears via odor, research finds

Babies can learn what to fear in the first days of life just by smelling the odor of their distressed mothers, new research suggests. And not just "natural" fears: If...

Fist-bumping beats germ-spreading handshake, study reports

“Fist bumping” transmits significantly fewer bacteria than either handshaking or high-fiving, while still addressing the cultural expectation of hand-to-hand contact between patients and clinicians, according to a study published in...

How sweet it is

A family of six nucleotide sugar transporters never before described have been characterized in <i>Arabidopsis</i>, a model plant for research in advanced biofuels.A powerful new tool that can help advance the genetic engineering of "fuel" crops for clean, green and renewable bioenergy, has been developed by researchers with the U.S. Department of...

Measuring the smallest magnets

This is an illustration showing the magnetic field lines of two electrons, arranged so that their spins point in opposite directions. The image comes from the lab of Dr. Roee Ozeri.Imagine trying to measure a tennis ball that bounces wildly, every time to a distance a million times its own size. The bouncing obviously creates enormous "background noise" that interferes...