Scientists generate first human stomach tissue in lab with stem cells

Scientists used pluripotent stem cells to generate functional, three-dimensional human stomach tissue in a laboratory -- creating an unprecedented tool for researching the development and diseases of an organ central to several public health crises, ranging from cancer to diabetes.

Where did all the oil go?

This image shows hydrocarbon contamination from Deepwater Horizon overlaid on sea floor bathymetry, highlighting the 1,250 square mile area identified in the study.Due to the environmental disaster's unprecedented scope, assessing the damage caused by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico has been a challenge. One unsolved puzzle is...

Ancient auditory illusions reflected in prehistoric art?

Here are prehistoric paintings of hoofed animals in a cave with thunderous reverberations located in Bhimbetka, India.Some of humankind's earliest and most mysterious artistic achievements -- including prehistoric cave paintings, canyon petroglyphs and megalithic structures such as Stonehenge -- may have been inspired by the behaviors...

Clean smell doesn't always mean clean air

Some of the same chemical reactions that occur in the atmosphere as a result of smog and ozone are actually taking place in your house while you are cleaning. A...

Plump turtles swim better: First models of swimming animals

Scientists studied newborn leatherback sea turtles to create the first models of a swimming animal. Challenges to measuring forces like drag and thrust made this difficult before, but the research team overcame these, offering the opportunity for many more to benefit from their findings.Bigger is better, if you're a leatherback sea turtle.

Scripps Research Institute scientists make enzyme that could help explain origins of life

Gerald F. Joyce, M.D., Ph.D., is a professor in the Departments of Chemistry and Cell and Molecular Biology at The Scripps Research Institute and director of the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation.Mimicking natural evolution in a test tube, scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have devised an enzyme with a unique property that might have been crucial to the origin...

Identifying 'stance taking' cues to enable sophisticated voice recognition

In the future, computers may be capable of talking to us during meetings just like a remote teleconference participant. But to help move this science-fiction-sounding goal a step closer to...

Physicists' simple solution for quantum technology challenge

A solution to one of the key challenges in the development of quantum technologies has been proposed by University of Sussex physicists.

University of Delaware study connects penguin chick weights to local weather conditions

University of Delaware researchers have reported a connection between local weather conditions and the weight of Adélie penguin chicks in Antarctica.Adélie penguins are an indigenous species of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), one of the most rapidly warming areas on Earth. Since 1950, the average annual temperature in the Antarctic...

Cutting the ties that bind

An oocyte with decreased Topoiosmerase II levels in heterochromatic region of the X chromosome (green) failed to separate while heterochromatic region of the 4th chromosome (red) is stretched into abnormal projections.The development of a new organism from the joining of two single cells is a carefully orchestrated endeavor. But even before sperm meets egg, an equally elaborate set of choreographed...

World losing 2,000 hectares of farm soil daily to salt damage: UN University

Every day for more than 20 years, an average of 2,000 hectares of irrigated land in arid and semi-arid areas across 75 countries have been degraded by salt, according to...

This is a comparison of visible light from a reference no-Li discharge and one with Li injection in DIII-D. Li-II visible emission is primarily green in this image from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

NUS researchers discover for the first time that a rare bush frog breeds in bamboo

Researchers from the National University of Singapore have discovered a new reproductive mode in frogs and toads -- breeding and laying direct developing eggs in live bamboo with narrow openings -- which was observed in the white spotted bush frog (<i>Raorchestes chalazodes</i>).Researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have discovered a new reproductive mode in frogs and toads -- breeding and laying direct developing eggs in live bamboo with narrow...

Climate change impacts countered by stricter fisheries management

This is a basket full of paddle-tail snappers. A newly published 17-year study by the Wildlife Conservation Society has found that implementing stricter fisheries management overcame the expected detrimental effects of climate change disturbances in coral reef fisheries badly impacted by the 1997/98 El Nino.A new study has found that implementing stricter fisheries management overcame the expected detrimental effects of climate change disturbances in coral reef fisheries badly impacted by the 1997/98 El Niño,...

Reducing population is no environmental 'quick fix'

New multi-scenario modelling of world human population has concluded that even stringent fertility restrictions or a catastrophic mass mortality would not bring about large enough change this century to solve...

First detailed picture of a cancer-related cell enzyme in action on a chromosome unit

New insight into the function of an enzyme related to the BRCA1 breast-cancer protein is published in the October 30, 2014 print edition of the journal Nature. The study by a Penn State University team led by Song Tan, professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at Penn State, produced the first detailed working image of an enzyme in a group that is associated with many types of cancer. The researchers obtained the first crystal structure of a gene-regulation enzyme working on a nucleosome. The image reveals previously unknown information about how the enzyme attaches to its nucleosome target. 
     This image is the first detailed picture of the crystal structure of a gene-regulation enzyme while it is working on a nucleosome -- a fundamental component of the chromosomes that provide structure and organization for an organism's genes. Nucleosomes are key targets of the enzymes that conduct genetic processes critical for life. This image reveals the crystal structure of the PRC1 enzyme (yellow, blue and red) bound to the nucleosome (DNA in light blue, histone proteins in purple, light green, light yellow and pink) This image was obtained in the lab of Song Tan at Penn State University and is published in the print edition of the journal <i>Nature</i> on Oct. 30, 2014.A landmark study to be published in the October 30, 2014 print edition of the journal Nature provides new insight into the function of an enzyme related to the BRCA1...

Supersonic laser-propelled rockets

The effectiveness of current laser-propulsion techniques is limited by the instability of supersonic gas flow, caused by shock waves that "choke" the inlet of the nozzle, reducing thrust. Those effects can be reduced with the help of laser ablation, redirecting the plasma plume so that it flows close to the interior walls of a supersonic nozzle and significantly improving the overall thrust.Scientists and science fiction writers alike have dreamt of aircrafts that are propelled by beams of light rather than conventional fuels. Now, a new method for improving the thrust generated...

'Reverse engineering' materials for more efficient heating and cooling

The multi-phase thermoelectric Cu(1.97)Ag(0.03)Se consists of a main crystal structure of Cu(2)Se and an impurity phase with the crystal structure of CuAgSe. In this scanning electron microscope image the impurity phase shows up as light spots. The dark spots are voids in the crystal structure.If you've ever gone for a spin in a luxury car and felt your back being warmed or cooled by a seat-based climate control system, then you've likely experienced the...

Watching the hidden life of materials

This is professor Siwick tweaking up the laser in his McGill University lab.Researchers at McGill University have succeeded in simultaneously observing the reorganizations of atomic positions and electron distribution during the transformation of the "smart material" vanadium dioxide (VO2) from a semiconductor...

How cells know which way to go

Amoebas aren't the only cells that crawl: Movement is crucial to development, wound healing and immune response in animals, not to mention cancer metastasis. In two new studies from Johns...

Lack of A level maths leading to fewer female economists

A study by the University of Southampton has found there are far fewer women studying economics than men, with women accounting for just 27 per cent of economics students, despite...

Study gives new view on how cells control what comes in and out

The dynamic interplay of calcium-free calmodulin (white yang domain) and calcium-bound calmodulin (dark yin domain) controls the opening of ion channels, shown in the background.A common protein plays a different role than previously thought in the opening and closing of channels that let ions flow in and out of our cells, researchers at Johns...