# Making better decisions when outcomes are uncertain

Markov decision processes are mathematical models used to determine the best courses of action when both current circumstances and future consequences are uncertain. They’ve had a huge range of applications — in natural-resource management, manufacturing, operations management, robot control, finance, epidemiology, scientific-experiment design, and tennis strategy, just to name a few. But analyses involving Markov decision processes (MDPs) usually make some simplifying assumptions. In an MDP, a given decision doesn’t yield a predictable result. Instead, the MDP uses a probability distribution to describe a range of possible results. Characterizing that distribution requires collection of empirical data, which can be prohibitively time consuming, so analysts usually just make educated guesses. That means, however, that the MDP analysis doesn’t guarantee the best decision in all cases. In the Proceedings of the Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems, published last month, researchers from MIT and Duke University took a step toward putting MDP analysis on...