BTN3A1 governs antitumor responses by coordinating {alpha}{beta} and {gamma}{delta} T cells

Thursday, August 20, 2020 - 13:00 in Health & Medicine

Gamma delta () T cells infiltrate most human tumors, but current immunotherapies fail to exploit their in situ major histocompatibility complex–independent tumoricidal potential. Activation of T cells can be elicited by butyrophilin and butyrophilin-like molecules that are structurally similar to the immunosuppressive B7 family members, yet how they regulate and coordinate αβ and T cell responses remains unknown. Here, we report that the butyrophilin BTN3A1 inhibits tumor-reactive αβ T cell receptor activation by preventing segregation of N-glycosylated CD45 from the immune synapse. Notably, CD277-specific antibodies elicit coordinated restoration of αβ T cell effector activity and BTN2A1-dependent lymphocyte cytotoxicity against BTN3A1+ cancer cells, abrogating malignant progression. Targeting BTN3A1 therefore orchestrates cooperative killing of established tumors by αβ and T cells and may present a treatment strategy for tumors resistant to existing immunotherapies.

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