A genetic change in the dopamine transporter, discovered in two brothers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, makes it behave as if amphetamine is present and "run backward," Vanderbilt Medical Center investigators report. The researchers propose that because the altered transporter pushes dopamine out into the synapse, it alters dopamine signaling and contributes to the symptoms of ADHD. They further find that both Ritalin and Adderall, two ADHD medications, block the backward-running transporter.
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